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Vortex Formation in the Cardiovascular System

https://libcat.nshealth.ca/en/permalink/provcat30879
Arash Kheradvar, Gianni Pedrizzetti. --London: Springer , c2012.
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Vortex formation has received much attention over the past few years. Vortices occur in nature wherever propulsive flow exists; from erupting volcanoes to the ones generated by squid and jellyfish to propel them. There has been particular interest in the wide variety of vortices that develop in the cardiovascular system, particularly in the cardiac chambers and in large arteries. These vortices play fundamental roles in the normal physiology and provide proper balance between blood motion and s…
Available Online
View e-Book
Author
Kheradvar, Arash
Other Authors
Pedrizzetti, Gianni
Responsibility
Arash Kheradvar, Gianni Pedrizzetti
Place of Publication
London
Publisher
Springer
Date of Publication
c2012
Physical Description
1 online resource (xiii, 164 p. : 75 ill., 42 ill. in color)
ISBN
9781447122883
Subjects (MeSH)
Blood Circulation - physiology
Hemodynamics - physiology
Subjects (LCSH)
Cardiology
Abstract
Vortex formation has received much attention over the past few years. Vortices occur in nature wherever propulsive flow exists; from erupting volcanoes to the ones generated by squid and jellyfish to propel them. There has been particular interest in the wide variety of vortices that develop in the cardiovascular system, particularly in the cardiac chambers and in large arteries. These vortices play fundamental roles in the normal physiology and provide proper balance between blood motion and stresses on the surrounding tissues. In contrast, formation of unnatural vortices may alter the momentum transfer in the blood flow and increase energy dissipation. Vortex Formation in the Cardiovascular System reviews the current knowledge of vortex formation, from the basic physics to cardiac physiology. There is a particular focus on the formation of vortices at different locations inside the heart, the effect of cardiac devices and surgery on vortex formation, fluid dynamics of the artificial heart valves and ventricular assist devices. The Authors have translated physical, mathematical and engineering concepts related to vortex formation into a clinical perspective with the objective to advance cardiovascular patient care. This book therefore represents a comprehensive and valuable resource for those involved in the field of cardiology and cardiovascular physiology, cardiovascular surgeons, interventional cardiologists, medical bioengineers and researchers in fluid mechanics.
Contents
[Machine generated contents note] 1. Fundamental Fluid Mechanics -- 1.1. Fluids and Solids, Blood and Tissues -- 1.2. Conservation of Mass -- 1.3. Conservation of Momentum and Bernoulli Theorem -- 1.4. Conservation of Momentum and Viscosity -- 1.5. Boundary Layer and Wall Shear Stress -- 1.6. Simple Flows and Concepts of Cardiovascular Interest -- References -- 2. Vortex Dynamics -- 2.1. Definitions -- 2.2. Dynamics of Vorticity -- 2.3. Boundary Layer Separation -- 2.4. Vortex Formation -- 2.5. Three-Dimensional Vortex Formation -- 2.6. Energy Loss and Force of Vortex Formation -- 2.7. Vortex Interactions -- 2.8. Mention to Turbulence -- References -- 3. Vortex Formation in the Heart -- 3.1. Mitral Valve and Transmitral Flow -- 3.1.1. Mitral Valve Functional Anatomy -- 3.1.2. Transmitral Flow -- 3.1.3. Transmitral Vortex Formation -- 3.1.4. Transmitral Vortex Formation Time Index: A Parameter to Couple Diastole and Systole -- 3.1.5. Mitral Annulus Recoil -- 3.1.6. Grading Diastolic Dysfunction -- 3.1.7. Outcome Planning for Diastolic Dysfunction -- 3.2. Aortic Valve and Sinuses of Valsalva -- 3.2.1. Functional Anatomy -- 3.2.2. Vortex Formation in Aortic Sinus -- 3.3. Vortex Formation in the Right Heart -- 3.4. Vortex Formation in the Embryonic Heart -- 3.5. Linking Cardiac Muscle Function to Vortex Formation -- 3.5.1. Preejection -- 3.5.2. Ejection -- 3.5.3. Isovolumic Relaxation -- 3.5.4. Early and Late Diastole -- 3.6. Effect of Left Ventricular Diseases on Vortex Formation -- 3.6.1. Vortex Formation in LV Systolic Dysfunction -- 3.6.2. Vortex Formation in LV Regional Myocardial Dysfunction -- 3.6.3. Hypertrophic Left Ventricle and Diastolic Dysfunction -- 3.6.4. Vortex Formation in Mitral Stenosis -- 3.6.5. Vortex Formation Time Index and Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvotomy -- References -- 4. Effect of Cardiac Devices and Surgery on Vortex Formation -- 4.1. Vortex Formation in Presence of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves -- 4.1.1. Mitral Bioprosthetic Valves -- 4.1.2. Aortic Bioprosthetic Valves -- 4.2. Vortex Formation in Presence of Mechanical Heart Valves (MHVs) -- 4.2.1. Study of MHVs’ Hemodynamics -- 4.2.2. Types of MHVs -- 4.2.3. Flow Across Mono-leaflet MHVs (MMHVs) -- 4.2.4. Orientation of MMHVs -- 4.2.5. Flow Across Bileaflet MHV (BMHV) -- 4.2.6. Consequence of Fluid Dynamics Experiments on Design of BMHVs -- 4.2.7. BMHVs at Aortic Position -- 4.2.8. BMHVs at Mitral Position -- 4.3. Vortical Flow Structures in Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) -- 4.3.1. Classification of VADs -- 4.3.2. Pulsatile VAD Hemodynamics -- 4.3.3. Valves in the VAD -- 4.3.4. VAD Chamber -- 4.3.5. Continuous Flow VADs (CF VADs) -- 4.3.6. Hemodynamics of VADs Cannulation -- 4.4. Vortex Formation due to Arterial Surgery and Anastomosis -- 4.4.1. Fontan Procedure -- 4.4.2. Anastomoses -- References -- 5. Diagnostic Vortex Imaging -- 5.1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging -- 5.1.1. Velocity Measurements Using MRI -- 5.1.2. Visualization and Quantification -- 5.1.3. Future Developments -- 5.2. Echocardiography -- 5.2.1. Blood Flow Visualization Using Echocardiography -- 5.2.2. Color Doppler -- 5.2.3. Contrast Enhanced Imaging and Echo-PIV -- 5.2.4. Future Developments -- 5.3. In Vitro Experiments -- 5.3.1. Particle Image Velocimetry -- 5.3.2. Heart-Flow Simulator and Reproduction of Cardiac Cycles -- 5.3.3. Experimental Characterization of the Vortex Formation -- 5.3.4. Influence of Transmitral Vortex Formation on Mitral Annulus Dynamics -- 5.3.5. Conclusive Remarks -- 5.4. Numerical Simulation -- 5.4.1. Fundamentals Elements of Numerical Simulations -- 5.4.2. Fluid-Structure Interaction -- 5.5. Conclusion -- References.
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e-Book
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Online
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