Arash Kheradvar, Gianni Pedrizzetti.
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Vortex formation has received much attention over the past few years. Vortices occur in nature wherever propulsive flow exists; from erupting volcanoes to the ones generated by squid and jellyfish to propel them. There has been particular interest in the wide variety of vortices that develop in the cardiovascular system, particularly in the cardiac chambers and in large arteries. These vortices play fundamental roles in the normal physiology and provide proper balance between blood motion and s…